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Khitai

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Crime and Punishmen

Khitan law is documented in the ancient documents known as the Articles. These formidable tomes, bound in brass, bronze, silver and jade, outline every law, its application and the punishments that go with it. Almost every aspect of social conduct is covered although, for practical purposes, only those that concern the key crimes of theft, rape, arson, treason, fraud and blackmail are every applied rigorously.

Most of Khitai’s laws derive from the moral teachings of the ancestors and previous God Emperors, particularly the God Emperor Munhg-Nahn who delighted in the study of morality and how it the moral compass of the Khitan people should be calibrated.

The basic law concerns the devotion of children to parents and obedience of the government. The rest of the laws consist of orders handed down by the emperors and are often variations on a similar theme or clarifications on existing ones. It is the duty of the Ministers and the Zhuhou to teach the laws to the people through a variety of public proclamations, public notices and examples supported by lengthy reports on how a judicial decision or punishment has been determined.

If the law is broken then punishments are severe. The seriousness of a crime determines the form of punishment that is received. Beating with a bamboo stick is considered to be a mild punishment for public insults, disrespect and trivial theft. Pick-pockets are branded on the arms for their first and second offences, while a third offence brings them before the criminal courts and results in the amputation of limb. Armed robbery of any kind punishable by death.

Punishments for women are especially harsh and aimed at enforcing social compliance. Any girl who insults her parents is strangled; if she injures them with intent, then she is liable for torture and dismemberment.

A father is responsible for the conduct of his children and his slaves. If they commit any crimes that he could have prevented then he is charged. Stealing from a member of the family is considered a most heinous crime, especially if younger brothers take an inheritance that should have been shared between older brothers or uncles.

Those found informing, for any reason, on parents, grandparents, uncles or older brothers are struck 100 times with bamboo stick and exiled for three years either in the Swamps or the Kambuljan Marches. However, if the information the informer has given proves not to be true, then they are strangled.

Several crimes are punished by permanent exile, either to the Swamps, the Marches or beyond Khitai’s borders. In this kind of case all records of the individual are wiped and he is deemed to have never existed. Permanent exile tends to be the prerogative of the Zhou and Zhuhou rather than for the lower orders, although certain Qing and Han may be deemed worthy of such treatment.

Crimes such as rape, fraud, arson and criminal damage are punishable by the criminals having their cheeks branded by red-hot irons so that all will know of their misdeeds. The branding iron used is usually shaped into the Low Mandir character for the offence, so that no one is in any doubt of the crime committed.

The most shameful of all crimes is treason agains the emperor and it is punishable by decapitation – the most shameful of punishments. Anyone found guilty of treason against the God Emperor dooms not only himself but his wife, his parents and his siblings to the same fate. If a traitor has children, then they are sold directly into slavery.

Where execution is concerned, enqiwei (knights) are usually chosen to be the executioners and they are proud of thestrength needed to carry out their duties. The executioner accompanies his victim to the place of execution (generally a dank. underground chamber) where, wearing a yellow silk apron and with a sword wrapped in yellow, showing that he acts with the God Emperor’s authority, he conducts the beheading with a single blow. The best executioners pride themselves on being able to decapitate a prisoner without spilling a single drop of blood.

Other crimes deemed heinous in the eyes of the Articles:

* Family burial sites are considered sacred and cannot
be taken over by anyone else.
* It is forbidden, under pain of death, to cut trees down
until they die naturally and permission has been
granted for their felling.
* Nobody is permitted to remove any item from
any tomb – even a relative’s – on pain of limb
amputation
Cha cheòl do dhuin' a bhròn uil' aithris.
[It is no music to a man to recite all his woe.]
NY0KLwG.jpg
Posted Jun 11, 18 · OP
Posts:
95
Votes:
+54
Khitan Religion

The Khitans hold to many strange beliefs and bizarre superstitions. One example is the legend that death must answer any question put to her by a man with courage enough to grasp and hold her. Khitan temples serve as sorcerous schools, teaching knowledge of all sorts. The emphasis on music in Khitan temples suggests some form of shamanism. The worship of Yogah of Yag also indicates that the Khitans like to worship beings they feel are real.

The Khitans believe the universe has three interconnected divisions: The heavens; the earth; and the underworld. Each person has two souls: one soul is forever linked to his descendants and the other goes into the underworld after death to continue life. Much of Khitan worship revolves around ancestor veneration, spirit and demon worship and blood sacrifices. Khitans believe that any serious request of the gods, spirits or demons must be accompanied by blood. Also, music plays a large role in their sorcerous religious rites.

The sorcerers of Khitai probably summon to the earth their dark gods so that they can be worshipped in person. In many of the stories, cities founded by easterners have dark gods living in nameless pits. Salome in A Witch Shall Be Born, was educated in Khitai and when she took over Khauran, she conjured up Thaug to put in a temple, conducting sacrificial rituals to appease it. This, with evidence from other stories, indicates an eastern practise of demon-worship. As more and more demons are summoned and worshipped, the pantheon grows and becomes ever more complex.
Cha cheòl do dhuin' a bhròn uil' aithris.
[It is no music to a man to recite all his woe.]
NY0KLwG.jpg
Posted Jun 11, 18 · OP
Posts:
95
Votes:
+54
Life, and its Cheapness

Life is cheap in Khitai. When it passes there is a certain amount of restrained grief but it is rapidly dispensed with and life goes on. The propensity for large, sprawling families across all classes is not the product of a deep abiding love for life but a practical necessity given that infant mortality rates are high. When a death occurs, it is the will of the Ancestors and there is no sense wasting in time in grief and despair; the dead undoubtedly go to a better place and if fortunate, join the Ancestors and become one of them. Khitans mourn the loss of respect, honour and duty more than they do the dead – although aftert the burial the burial site becomes sacrosanct.

Human sacrifice is common in Khitai. Most sacrifices are condemned prisoners but the Khitan nobility is able to make any sacrifice it wishes, so slaves, peasants or even willing family members can find themselves en-route to the sacrificial altar or stone. Sacrifice is seen as a noble undertaking; the surest, most courteous way of proving one’s dedication and loyalty, to the Gong, the God Emperor and the Ancestors. Ancestral spirits, in particular, require blood to be spilt to prove the serious nature of any request. River, mountain and other nature spirits often require similar tokens of seriousness. In addition to human sacrifice, animal sacrifice is also rampant, especially large animals such as elephants and rhinoceroses. There is a Khitan notion that a person’s spirit lingers on in a spirit world after death. If a scholar shows proper respect to departed ancestors, this realm’s powers can be tapped into to aid the living. This being the case, the dead in Khitai are buried with things needed to live a comfortable life in the hereafter, for a comfortable, pleased spirit is more conducive to giving advice or favours when requested. Further, the spirits of ancient kings act as intermediaries to the actual gods, who are strange and unknowable to mortals. Spirits are nourished by human blood, so vast amounts of human sacrifice are necessary to maintain the integrity and unity of Khitai.

Sorcery

The practice of sorcery is viewed with suspicion in many nations of the Hyborian Age but in Khitai it is viewed as a legitimate pursuit and great sorcerers are revered. There is a simple understanding that the ability to harness the powers of the universe is a marvellous gift that should be put to use in whatever ways or means necessary. This does not mean that sorcerers are common in Khitai because they are not; yet they are not shunned as they are in some nations. Itinerant mercenary sorcerers wander the jungles and plains of Khitai selling their services and attaining great prestige if their services help a Gong advance or better his enemies. Local rulers seek-out and sponsor sorcerers who live in their midst, putting their powers to practical, political use.

Demons

The dark creatures of the underworld are summoned and worshipped as gods in Khitai. The belief is that, upon death, the soul is divided into two. One part ascends to heaven where it resides with the ancestors and assists in ordering the cosmos. The second part descends to the underworld where it continues its life unhindered by mortal constraints. Whilst in the underworld it will become privy to great secrets and knowledge and may advance to the point wher it is, in fact, a demigod. An underworld soul that has achieved such power can be summoned back to the mortal world to exercise its power, for good or ill. In western cultures such creatures are called demons or fiends but in Khitai these are semi-divine creatures that deserve reverence and sacrifice. They grant great power to the earth-bound and have cosmic insights that benefit all of Khitai.

Jade and Art

Nobles wear ceremonial articles and personal ornaments of exquisite craftsmanship, usually in designs such as coiled dragons, trumpeting elephants, charging tigers and crouching bears. Jade is especially valuable to the Khitans. It is, to them, the essence of heaven and Earth combined. Almost all items used in Khitan rituals are made from jade.It is more valuable than gold. If the Emperor sends a noble or scholar on a oyal mission or duty, he often gives the noble or scholar a certain jade tablet to prove that he doing divinely charged work.

Khitan Tombs

All Khitan nobles are interred in a tomb. Lower ranking Khitans make do with a simple grave burial in a dedicated graveyard, although wealthy Han may have the funds to build an impressive mausoleum.

Tombs in Khitai are built below ground with walls and floors of rammed earth. The tombs are often huge, measuring around 60 feet long, 50 feet wide and 40 feet deep. At the bottom of this shaft a small bit is made with ledges of pounded earth. An eight foot tall wooden chamber is built to house the coffin. The Khitan kings are buried with hundreds of bronze artefacts, jades, bone objects, ivory carvings, pottery and cowry shells. These artefacts include mirrors, ceremonial vessels, bells ad weapons. Men, women, children and dogs are sacrificed for the benefit of the tombs’ occupants and buried with them. Their bodies litter the walkway to the tomb. They are sacrificed by beheading in a gruesome ritual. The skulls are not placed with the bodies. Instead they are stacked in the centre of the tomb facing the wooden chamber.
Cha cheòl do dhuin' a bhròn uil' aithris.
[It is no music to a man to recite all his woe.]
NY0KLwG.jpg
Posted Jun 11, 18 · OP · Last edited Jun 11, 18
Posts:
95
Votes:
+54
So I also thought this will be handy if anyone wants names for Khitans.

The following name lists are representative of Khitan names. Others can be found throughout Conan stories. The names here are based on traditional Chinese names, because Khitai is essentially a Chinese analogue but you need not feel constrained by typically Chinese-sounding names; as long as the name has an oriental flavour, then it will be reflecting the themes of the saga.

Male names

Ah-cy, Ai-de, An-shi, An-te-hai, An-yan, An-yi, Bai-luo, Baio, Bang, Bang-xao, Bao-qing, Bao-tian, Bei, Biao, Bi-jun, Bin, Bing, Bing-de, Bing-zhang, Bing-zhong, Bin-ying, Bor-zeng, Bu-wei, Cai-fei, Ch’ang-chieh, Chang, Chang-lit, Chang-wei, Chang-yong, Chao, Chao-yang,Chee-hwa, Cheh, Cheng-en, Cheng-gong, Cheng-hao, Cheng-ho, Cheng-ji, Dai-lin, Dan-zu, Dao-zi, Da-xia, Decheng, De-shi, De-wei, Ding-bong, Dong, Dongdo-pa, Dong-hua, Dong-po, Dou-guan, Dou-wan, Du, Du-yang, Eng-hee, En-guo, En-lai, Er, Fa-hsien, Fai, Fa-tang, Fei, Fei-hsien, Feng, Feng-linag, Feng-xiang, Feng-yi, Fo-hian, Fook, Fu, Fu-chi, Fu-Kang, Fu-po, Fu-quan, Gah-fat, Gan, Gang, Gang-sheng, Gao, Ghi-cheng, Gin-fan, Hai-feng, Hai-liang, Han, Hang-fu, Hang-ki, Han-wu, Hao, Hao-hing, Hark, He, Heng-zong, Hen-to, He-ping, Hiang-ta, Hi-yuan, Ho, Hong-bin, Hong-bo, Hong-quan, Hongwu, Hoo-gwo, Hou, Hou-kang, Ho-win, Hsiao-lou, Hsi-chuen, Hsien-feng, Hsi-men, Hsin-pei, Hsin-ping, Hsin-ta, Hsu, Hsuang-tsung, Hsueh-liang, I-po, I-tsing, Jai-guo, Jang-lu, Jen-djieh, Jen-kan, Jen-ta, Jhong-shun, Ji, Jian, Ji-an, Jian-cheng, Jian-gang, Jian-gun, Jian-guo, Jian-ying, Jian-zhang, Jiao-long, Ji-e, Jin, Jing, Jing-bo, Jing-quo, Jing-sheng, Jing-shuan, Jin-guo, Jing-xiang, Jian-yu, Jing-zhong, Jin-song, Jin-woo, Ka-fei, Kai-ge, Kai-shek, Kai-xi, Kang, Kang-xi, Kao-kan, Kaong, Kao-tsu, Ka-pa, Kee, Ke-huy, Kei-thing, Keng-chi, Keung, Ke-yong, Ke-yue, Khai, Khoi, Kian-tat, Kian-zhi, Kien, Kien-lung, Ki-tong, Koi-sho, Kol-in-sen, Kong, Kuan, Kuang, Kuang-an, Kuang-yin, Kuan-tai, Kuan-yew, Lai-hsiang, Lan-fang, Lang, Lan-quing, Lao, Lao-che, Lao-sheng, Lau-po, Lee tai hoi, Le-song, Liang, Liangde, Liang-hsi, Liann-wei, Lian-wei, Li-ben, Li-chi, Li-cong, Lieh, Lien-ying, Li-hong, Ling-kung, Ling-lai, Li-ping, Li-ren, Liu-chun, Liu-liang, Li-xue, Li-zhi, Li-zhu, Loo, Lu, Lu-fang, Mao-you, Mei, Mei-shan, Mei-shio, Min, Ming, Ming-an, Ming-feng, Ming-hoa, Ming-jiang, Ning, Ning-qing, On, Pang, Pao-tzu, Pei, Peng, Pi-ao, Pie-qi, Pin-zhen, Po-fu, Pok-too, Po-sin, Pu-feng, Pu-la, Qian, Qian-fu, Qian-gui, Qian-hua, Qi-chang, Qi-chao, Qi-chen, Qing-hua, Qing-lai, Qing-nian, Qin-shu, Qi-zhen, Quan, Qu-bing, Quiang, Qui-li, Quon, Ren-qing, Run-ming, San-gui, San-pao, See-tong, Shan, Shan-bo, Shang-de, Shan-tang, Shao-qi, Shao-zu, She, Shen, Sheng, Shi-fa, Shi-fu, Shih-k’ai, Shi-kai, Shi-lin, Shi-min,Si-xun, Song, Sun, Sun-wei, Su-shun, Su-wu, Sy-ing, Sze, Szeto, Ta-heng, Tai, Tai fat, Tai hoi, Tai sun, Ta-kai, Tak-hing, Tak-keung, Tak-wai, Tan, Tan-ming, Tao, Tat, Te, Teh-huai, Tia, Ti-an, Tian-bai, Tian-yun, Tien-kai, Tin-jong, Tong, To-wai, Tse-peng, Tse-tung, Tsing, Tso-i, Tso-lin, Tsu-wee, Tu-an, Tu-fu, Tung, Tung-chi,Tuo-zhou,Tyan-yu, Tze-meng, Tzu-hsia, Wang-fen, Wan-hua, Wan-ling, Way-ming, Wei, Wei-fang, Wei-guo, Wei-hong, Wei-kang, Wei-liang, Wei-qian, Wei-qiang, Wei-quo, Wei-sng, Wen, Wen-hua, Wen-huan, Wen-zhong, Xiang-ling, Xian-yao, Xiao-gang, Xiao-mei, Xiao-peng, Xiao-shuang, Xiao-wei, Xiao-xuan, Xiao-yan, Xiao-yong, Xie-li, Xi-ku, Xin, Xin-fang, Xing-fu, Xing-hua, Xing-li, Xing-peng, Xing-yun, Xinpeng, Xiong, Yang-cheng, Yan-hao, Yao-bang, Yao-pang, Yao-qing, Yat-sen, Ye, Yee, Yen-nien, Yen-ti, Yeow-whye, Ye-qing, Yi, Yic, Yi-da, Yifu, Yi-ke, Yi-lin, Yi-mou, Yin-fat,Ying-hua, Yin-reng, Yin-ti, Yin-tou, Yu-zhang, Zai-shuo, Ze-dong, Zee-loo, Ze-min, Zhang, Zhang-sung, Zhao-dao, Zhao-hui, Zhao-ji, Zhao-jun, Zhao-ying, Zhen-bang, Zheng-xin, Zheng-ze, Zhen-ying, Zhi, Zhi-bin, Zhi-fu, Zhi-gang, Zhi-huan, Zhi-jan, Zhi-jun, Zhi-peng, Zhi-qiang.

Female Names

Ah-ch’ou, Ah-chu, Ah-lam, Ai-ling An, An-mei, An-xi, Bao, Bao-yu, Ben-xu, Bik, Cai, Cai-yun, Ch’ui-hsia, Ch’un-hsiang, Chen, Chin-chiao, Chin-chih, Ching, Chu-hua, Chun, Chun-hsia, Chun-hsiang, Chun-lan, Chun-ping, Chwun-hwa, Chwun-yu, Ci-xi, Dan, Dao-ming, Da-xia, De, Dina, Ding, Donglu, Dou, Dou-wan, Er-hong, Fang, Fang-hua, Fei, Feng, Feng-ying, Foh, Fu-gin, Gaik-hong, Gschu, Gui-fei, Hai-xia, Hsui-ying, Hua, Huan, Huang, Hui, Hui-fang, Hui-lan, Hu-lan, Jai, Jeak-ling, Jiang-kui, Jia-ni, Jian-ku, Jian-kui, Jian-ping, Ji-hong, Jing, Jing-mei, Jing-shin, Jing-wei, Jing-yi, Jing-zhi, Jin-hua, Jin-shan, Jue-feng, Jui-juan, Jun, Jung, Jung-jie, Jy-ying, Kit ling, Kuei-fen, Kwan, Lai, Lan, Lang, Lao-shih, Lei, Li, Lian, Lian-hua, Lien, Lien-ying, Li-hua, Li-juan, Li-jun, Lili, Li-li, Li-min, Li-ming, Lin, Li-na, Lin-do, Ling, Ling-juan, Lin-wei, Li-ping, Liu-hong, Li-ya, Lu, Mae-wan, Mao, May-ling, Mei, Mei-chu, Mei-chuan, Mei-hua, Mei-kai, Mei-li, Mei-lian, Mei-lin, Mei-ling, Mei-shio, Mei-su, Mei-xing, Mei-ying, Mei-zhen, Mei-zhu, Memg, Miao-yin, Min, Ming,iu-niu, Niu-niu, Nui, Nu-wa, Pao-pao, Pei-hsi, Pei-jun, Pei-pei, Phan-hue, Ping, Qing, Qiu-ju, Qiu-rui, Qui, Quing, Qun, Ran-ting, Rong-fang, Rou-wan, Rui-hong, Ruina, Ruinna, Rui-ping, Ru-ping, Sa-kota, Sang-wa, Shan-lee, Shao-yan, Shi-ting, Shoshana, Shou-yun, Shu-kian, Shu-ting, Sia-wai, Song-lian, Su-chen, Su-chu, Suet-lin, Sung-lee, Su-yin, Su-yuan, Sze-mei, Szu, Szu-zhan, Tai-hoi, Tan-hung, Te-ling, Ting, Ts’ui-fang, Tsai-chin, Tsao-lin, Tse, Tung-mei, Tzu-his, Wai-ting, Wan, Wei, Wei-hong, Wei-li, Wei-min, Wei-yan, Wen, Weng, Wen-hua, Wen-jiing, Wen-jing, Wen-rong, Woei-wan, Xiang, Xiao-bo, Xiao-cheng, Xiao-jie, Xiao-jun, Xiao-lan, Xiao-li, Xiao-mei, Xiaoming, Xiao-niao, Xi-lan, Xin, Xing-jiang, Xiong-hong, Xiu-lan, Xiu-mei, Xiu-min, Xiu-ying, Xue, Xue-di, Xue-mei, Xuer-nei, Xu-hu, Xu-xa, Yan, Yan-hong, Yan-jun, Yan-mei, Ya-ping, Yasha, Yehonala, Yi, Yi-ku, Yin, Ying, Ying-nana, Ying-tai, Ying-ying, Yi-xuan, Yong, Yong-mei, Yong-tai, Yuan, Yuan-yuan, Yue, Yue-feng, Yue-qin, Yu-ling, Yu-mei, Yung-ping, Yun-he, Yun-ping, Yu-shiou, Yu-zhu, Zan, Zhao-ying, Zhen, Zhen-li, Zhi-chao, Zhi-hong, Zhuo, Zi.
Cha cheòl do dhuin' a bhròn uil' aithris.
[It is no music to a man to recite all his woe.]
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Posted Jun 11, 18 · OP
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